Wednesday 21 June 2017

"Clown Readings" Bibliography

Here is the full bibliography, listing all the sources cited or collected in "Clown Readings"

Abbott, Bud and Costello, Lou (1944) Lost in a Harem (Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer).

Adams, Patch (1993) Gesundheit! (Vermont: Healing Arts Press).

- (1998) House Calls (San Francisco: Robert D. Reed).

- (2007) Interview on Roda Viva, 9th April 2007 (TV Brasil),, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Allen, Tony (2002) Attitude: Wanna Make Something Of It? (Glastonbury: Gothic Image).

Anderson, Franki (2009) Fools Gold,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2011) Interview by telephone, 13th December 2011.

Angelo, Henry (1828) Reminiscences (London: Henry Colburn).

Anderberg, Kirsten (2005) ‘Women Street Performers and Sexual Safety’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Armin, Robert (1972) Collected Works ed. Feather, J P (London: Johnson Reprint Corporation).

Arratoon, Liz (2011) Review of Slava’s Snowshow in The Stage, 19th December 2011,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Aspa, Jordi (2009) ‘La Integridad del Círculo’ in Zirkolika, Revista Trimestral de les Arts Circenses no. 21, Summer 2009, p.33.

Astruc, Gabriel (1929) Le pavillon des fantômes (Paris: Grasset).

Atkinson, Rowan (1992) Visual Comedy, a lecture by Rowan Atkinson M.Sc. (Oxon.) (Tiger Television).

Auerbach, N (1990) Private Theatricals: the lives of the Victorians (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press).

Ball, Lucille (1951) I Love Lucy Pilot Program, unaired episode (CBS).

- (1952) I Love Lucy Season 1, Episode 52, 22nd December 1952 (CBS).

Balderas, Elizabeth (2009) Letter to El Chamuco, reproduced at, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Bandolier, Adolf (1890) The Delight Makers (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company).

Barker, Clive (1977) Theatre Games (London: Methuen).

Basch, Sophie (2002) Romans de cirque (Paris: Robert Laffont).

Baskervill, Charles Read (1929) The Elizabethan Jig and Related Song Drama (Chicago: Chicago University Press).

Baudelaire, Charles (1855) ‘On the Essence of Laughter’ in The Mirror of Art (1955) tr. & ed. Mayne, Jonathan (London: Phaidon Press).

Baugé, Isabelle (1995) Pantomimes (Cahors : Cicéro Éditions).

Beeman, William O. (1981) ‘Why Do They Laugh? An Interactional Approach to Humor in Traditional Iranian Improvisatory Theatre: Performance and its Effects’ in The Journal of American Folklore, Vol. 94, No. 374, Folk Drama (Oct. – Dec., 1981), 506-526.

Bellocq, Éric, Lavenère, Vincent de et al. (2004) Le chant des balles (Vic-la-Gardiole: L’Entretemps).

Bellos, David (1999) Jacques Tati (London: The Harvill Press).

Billington, Michael (2008) Review of Varekai in The Guardian, 10th January 2008.

Boese, Carl (1931) Grock (La vie d'un grand artiste) (Universum Film AG).

Bogdanovich, Peter (1972) Leo McCarthy Oral History (Los Angeles: American Film Institute).
Bolton, Reg (1987) New Circus (Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation).

Bouissac, Paul (1972) Clown Performances as Meta-semiotic Texts in Language Sciences 19, 1-7.
- (1997) The profanation of the sacred in circus clown performances, in Richard Schechner and W. Appel (eds) By Means of Performance 194-207 (Cambridge: CUP).
Brecht, Bertolt (1955) translated by Geoffrey Kelton (1998)The Baden-Baden Lesson on Consent, in Collected Plays: Three (London: Methuen).
- (1994) Mann ist Mann (trans. By Gerhard Nellhaus) in Collected Plays: Two (London: Methuen).

Brinn, David (2011) ‘It’s not just clowning around with Slava and his Snowshow’ in The Jerusalem Post, 13th August 2011,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Brown, Ismene (2011) Review of Slava's Snowshow in theartsdesk, 29th December 2011,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Brown, Maria Ward (1901) The Life of Dan Rice (New Jersey: Long Branch).

Bryant, Arthur (1952) The Age of Elegance 1812-1822 (London: Collins).

Buten, Howard (2005) Buffo (Arles: Actes Sud).

Caillois, Roger (2001) Man, Play and Games (Chicago: University of Illinois Press).
Cairoli, Charlie (1966) The Milk Number at The London Hippodrome,, date accessed 29th December 2011.
- (1973) The Milk Number at Cirque Bouglione, Paris,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Calvi, Nuala (2011) Interview with Slava Polunin in The Stage, 16th December 2011.

Cameron, Anne (1981) Daughters of Copper Woman (Vancouver: Press Gang Publishers).
Campardon, Émile (1880) Les Comédiens du Roi de la troupe italienne (Paris: Berger-Levrault et Cie).
Carlson, Marvin (2003) ‘The Golden Age of the Boulevard’ in Joel Schechter (ed.), Popular Theater (London: Routledge).

Carse, James P. (1986) Finite and Infinite Games (New York: Random House).

Cashin, Pat (2011) Clownalley (

Cazeneuve, Jean (1957) Les dieux dansent à Cibola (Paris: Gallimard).

Ceballos, Edgar (1999) El Libro de Oro de los Payasos (Mexico DF: Escenología).

Cenoz, Clara (2009) Banana!, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2011) Interview at Escola de Clown de Barcelona, 20th November 2011.
Chai, Barbara (2011) ‘The Red-Nosed Revolution’ in the Wall Street Journal, 1st November 2011,, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Chamberlain, Franc and Yarrow, Ralph (eds.) (2002) Jacques Lecoq and the British Theatre (Oxford: Routledge).

Champsaur, Félicien (1901) Lulu, Roman clownesque in Basch, Sophie (2002) Romans de cirque (Paris: Robert Laffont).

Chaplin, Charlie (1916) The Pawnshop (Mutual Film Corporation).

- (1921) The Kid (First National).

- (1928) The Circus (United Artists).

- (1931) City Lights (United Artists).

- (1936) Modern Times (United Artists).

- (1964) My Autobiography, (London: The Bodley Head).

Chekhov, Michael (1953) To the Actor (New York: Harper and Row).

CIRCA (2006-11), date accessed 29th December 2011.

Claretie, Jules (1881) La Vie a Paris (Paris: Havard).

- (1888) Boum-Boum (New York: William R. Jenkins).

Clay, Alan (2005) Angels Can Fly, a Modern Clown User’s Guide (Newtown, Australia: Artmedia Publishing).

Clowns of America International (2006) 20 Years of Laughter (Nashville: Turner Publishing Company).

Cohen, Moshe (2005) ‘A Short Look at Clown and Zen’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2007a) ‘Conversations with Roshi Egyoku: The Three Tenets’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2007b) ‘Conversation with Roshi Bernie Glassman’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2007c) ‘Conversations with Egyoku: Joy and Zen’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2012) ‘The power of the (clown) Nose’, in Sacred Mischief,, date accessed 11th January 2012.

Copeau, Jacques (1990), Texts on Theatre, edited and translated by Rudlin, John and Paul, Norman H. (London: Routledge).
Cortés, Edouard (2007) El Pallasso i el Fuhrer (The Clown and the Fuhrer) (Televisió de Catalunya).
Cosdon, Mark (2010) The Hanlon Brothers: from daredevil acrobatics to spectacle pantomime, 1833-1931 (Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press).

Coward, Simon and Perry, Christopher Woodall (2009) Bob's Full House (Dudley: Kaleidoscope).

Crane, David and Kauffman, Marta (1994-2004) Friends (NBC).

Dauven, L R and Garnier, Jacques (1971) ‘Fellini’s Clowns’ in Le Cirque dans l'Univers #81 (Club du Cirque), trans. by Goodman, Diane in (1978) Mask, Mime & Marionette, vol. I, no. 1, Spring 1978: 41-4 (New York).

David, Larry (2000-2011) Curb Your Enthusiasm (HBO).

David, Larry and Seinfeld, Gerry (1989-1998) Seinfeld (NBC).

Davis, Janet M (2005) ‘Bearded Ladies, Dainty Amazons, Hindoo Fakirs, and Lady Savages:

Circus Representations of Gender and Race in Victorian America’, Lecture at the University of Virginia 5th-8th October 2005,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Davison, Jon (2008) The Phenomenology of Clown, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2009a) The Dramaturgy of Clown, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2009b) An Encyclopaedia of Clown, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2010) Clown Training Today, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Diercksen, Laurent (1999) Grock: un destin hors norme (Bévilard, Switzerland : Laurent Diercksen).

Denis, Dominique (1985) Le Livre du Clown (Strasbourg: Éditions Techniques du Spectacle).

- (1997) 1.000 gags de clowns (Strasbourg: Magix Unlimited).

Dickens, Charles (1837) The Post-humourous notes of the Pickwickian Club (London: E. Lloyd).

Dimitriev, Yuri (1967) The Soviet Circus 1917-1941 (Moscow: Progress Publishers).

Disher, Maurice Willson (1925) Clowns and Pantomimes (London/New York : Benjamin Blom).

- (1937) Greatest Show on Earth (London: G. Bell and Sons)

Double, Oliver (1997) Stand-Up: On Being a Comedian (London: Methuen).

- (2005) Getting The Joke (London: Methuen).

Dromgoole, Nicholas (2007) Performance Style and Gesture in Western Theatre (London: Oberon Books).

Dryden, John (1811) The poetical works of John Dryden, vol. 2, eds Warton, Joseph and Warton, John (London: Rivington).

Duranty, Louis-Edmond (1995) Théâtre des Marionnettes - Répertoire Guignol du XIXe siècle (Paris : Actes Sud).

Durwin, Joseph (2002) Coulrophobia and the Trickster,, date accessed 29th December 2011.
Eisenberg, Avner (c. 1980-2011) Exceptions to Gravity (live one-man show).
- (2005) Eccentric Principles,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2011) Interview with Christopher Lueck, 3rd February 2011,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Evans, Mark (2006) Jacques Copeau (London: Routledge).

Feldberg, Robert (2010) 'Banana Shpeel is a Cirque du Soleil attempt at vaudeville’, review of Banana Shpeel at The Beacon Theater, New York (in The Record 27th May 2010).

Fellini, Federico (1970) I Clowns (Radiotelevisione italiana).

Findlater, Richard (1978) Joe Grimaldi: his life and theatre (Cambridge: CUP).

Fisher, John (2006) Tommy Cooper – Always Leave Them Laughing (London: Harper Collins).

Fleisher, Julian (1996) The Drag Queens of York (New York: Riverhead Books).
Franc-Nohain (1907) Les mémoires de Footit et Chocolat (Paris: Pierre Lafitte).

Franconi, Victor (1855) Le cavalier, cour d’équitation pratique (Paris: Michel Lévy).

Fratellini, Albert (1955) Nous, Les Fratellini (Paris: Éditions Bernard Grasset).

Fratellini, Annie (1989) Destin de clown, (Lyon: Éditions La Manufacture).

- (1997) Article about Annie Fratellini in L’Humanité, 2nd July 1997.

Fratellini, Valérie (2002) ‘Ça mange quoi, un clown? Soliloque d’une dinosaure’ in Jeu: revue de théâtre, no. 104, (3) 2002, p. 109-15,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Frediani, Aristodemo (Beby) (1930) Mémoires d’un clown (Paris: La Liberté).

Frichet, Henri (1889) Le Cirque et les Forains (Tours: Alfred Mame et Fils).

Frost, Anthony and Yarrow, Ralph (1990) Improvisation in Drama (Palgrave Macmillan).

Fumagalli (2011) Le Miel et la reine des abeilles (The Honey and the Queen Bee),, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Jané, Jordi (1996) Charlie Rivel (Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya).

Jané, Jordi and Minguet, Joan M (eds) (1998) Sebastià Gasch, El Gust pel Circ (Tarragona: El Medol).

Gardner, Lyn (2009) Review of Le Cirque Invisible at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, in The Guardian, 5th August 2009,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Gaulier, Philippe (2007a) Le gégéneur/The Tormentor (Paris: Éditions Filmiko).

- (2007b) The King of my School,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

von Geldern, James and Stites, Richard (eds) Mass Culture in Soviet Russia (Indiana: Indiana University Press).

Gehring, Wes D. (1990) Laurel & Hardy: a bio-bibliography (Greenwood Publishing Group).

Gervais, Ricky (2006) Ricky Gervais Meets ... Larry David (Channel 4).

Gervais, Ricky and Merchant, Stephen (2001-3) The Office (BBC TV).

Gervais, Ricky, Merchant, Stephen and Davis, Warwick (2011) Life’s Too Short (BBC TV).

Girolamo, Mercuriale (1569) Arte Gymnastica libri Sex. in Toole Scott, Robert (1958-1962) Circus and Allied Arts: a World Bibliography (Derby: Harpur & Sons).
Goffman, Erving (1990) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (London: Penguin).

Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de (2005). Journal des Goncourt, volume 1: 1851–1857 (Paris: H. Champion).
Gordon, Mel (1983), Lazzi (New York: Performing Arts Journal).

Goudard, Philippe (2005) Anatomie d’un clown / Lire et Écrire le cirque (Vic-la-Gardiole: L’Entretemps éditions).

Grantham, Barry (2000) Playing Commedia – A Training Guide to Commedia Techniques (London: Nick Hern Books).

- (2006) Commedia Plays – Scenarios, Scripts, Lazzi (London: Nick Hern Books).

Grock (1931) Life’s a Lark, (London: William Heinemann Ltd).

- (1957) King of Clowns (London: Methuen).

Haifa, University of (2006) ‘Medical Clowning Studies’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Halperson, Joseph (1926) Das Buch von Zirkus (Düsseldorf: Lintz A.-G.).

Hanna, William and Barbera, Joseph (1954) Hic-cup Pup (Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer).

Harris, Paul (1996) The Pantomime Book: The Only Known Collection of Pantomime Jokes and Sketches in Captivity (London: Peter Owen).

Helm, Alex (1971) Eight Mummers’ Plays (London: Ginn).

Henderson, Jan (2008) ‘Philosophy of Clown’,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Hicks, Bill (1989) ‘What you reading for?’ in Sane Man (Sacred Cow Productions).

Huizinga, Johan (1970) Homo Ludens; a study of the play element in culture (London: Paladin).

Hutter, Gardi (1981) Joan of ArPpo,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Jando, Dominique (2008) The circus: 1870-1950 (London: Taschen).

- (2009) ‘Behind the Scenes at the Circus’, talk and panel discussion at the Baltimore Museum of Art, 31st March 2009,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Jara, Jesús (2004) El Clown, un navegante de las emociones (Sevilla: Proexdra).

Jigalov, Andrei and Csaba, Albert (2009) The Sweets,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Johnson, Bruce ‘Charlie’ (1993) The Tramp Tradition (Kenmore: Charlie’s Creative Comedy).

- (2000) ‘Early Female Clowns’ in The Clown In Times, Volume 6, Issue 3.

- (2010) ‘History and Philosophy’ in Clowning Around, March/April 2010 (World Clown Association)

Johnston, Chris (2006) The Improvisation Game (London: Hern Books).

Jonson, Ben (1641) Discoveries Made Upon Men and Matter, ed. (1892) by Schelling, F E (Bosotn: Ginn).

Kapoor, Raj (1970) Meera Naam Joker (My Name is Joker) (R. K. Films).

Karandash (1987) Karandash (Moscow: Москва искусство).

Kaufman, Andy (1980) Appearnace on The Letterman Show, 24th June 1980 (NBC).

Keaton, Buster (1920) Neighbors (Metro Pictures).

- (1927) College (United Artists).

Kelly, Emmet and Kelly, Beverly (1996) Clown (New York: Buccaneer Books).

Kemp, Barry (1979) ‘Bobby’s Big Break’ in Taxi Season 1, Episode 18 (Paramount Television).

Kendrick, Lynne (2011) ‘A paidic aesthetic: an analysis of games in Philippe Gaulier’s ludic pedagogy’ in Theatre, Dance and Performance Training Vol. 2 (1), 72-85 (London: Routledge).

Kerr, Walter (1975) The Silent Clowns (New York: Alfred A Knopf).

Koller, Donna and Gryski, Camilla (2008) ‘The Life Threatened Child and the Life Enhancing Clown: Towards a Model of Therapeutic Clowning’ in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5 (2008), Issue 1, pp. 17-25,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Kramer, Mimi (1998) ‘Hot Ticket to Nowhere’ in The New Yorker 21/11/1998.

Lane, Lupino (1945) How to become a Comedian (London: Frederick Muller).
Langdon, Harry (1924) All Night Long (Mack Sennett-Pathé).
- (1925) Boobs in the Wood (Mack Sennett-Pathé).
- (1926a) Tramp, Tramp, Tramp (First National Pictures).

- (1926b) The Strong Man (First National Pictures).

- (1927a) Long Pants (First National Pictures).

- (1927b) Three’s a Crowd (Harry Langdon Corporation).
Laurel, Stan and Hardy, Ollie (1929) Unaccustomed As We Are (Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer).
Le Roux, Hughes (1890) Acrobats and Mountebanks trans. by Morton, A P (London: Chapman and Hall).

Levine, Josh (2010) Pretty, Pretty, Pretty Good – Larry David and the Making of Seinfeld and Curb Your Enthusiasm (Toronto: ECW Press).

Lily, Peta (2011) ‘The Dark Clown - In pursuit of a different kind of laughter’ (unpublished article).

Little, Kenneth (1981) ‘Clown Performance in the European One Ring Circus’ in Culture 1(2): 67-72.

- (1991) ‘The Rhetoric of Romance and the Simulation of Tradition in Circus Clown Performance’ in Semiotica vol. 85(3/4): 227-55.

- (1993), ‘Masochism, Spectacle, and the “Broken Mirror” Clown Entree: a Note on the Anthropology of Performance in Postmodern Culture’ in Cultural Anthropology, vol.8, no. 1: 117-29.
- (2003) ‘Pitu’s Doubt: Entrée Clown Self-Fashioning in the Circus Tradition’ in Schechter, Joel (ed.) (2003) Popular Theater (London: Routledge), originally published in The Drama Review 112 (1986): 182-6.

Louvish, Simon (2001) Stan and Ollie: The Roots of Comedy (London: Faber and Faber).

- (2003) Keystone – The Life and Clowns of Mack Sennett (London: Faber and Faber).
Makarius, Laura Levi (1974) Le sacré et la violation des interdits (Paris: Éditions Payot).

Mamet, David (1998) True or False: Heresy and Common Sense for the Actor(London: Faber and Faber).

Margueritte, Paul (1886) Pierrot, assassin of his wife in Gerould, Daniel (1979) ‘Paul Margueritte and Pierrot assassin of his wife’ in The Drama Review, XXIII (March): 103-19.

Mariel, Pierre (1923) Histoire de trios clowns (Paris: Société Anonyme d’Éditions).

Martin, Steve (2008) Born Standing Up: a comic’s life (London: Pocket Books).

Marx Brothers, The Four (1933) Duck Soup (Paramount Productions Inc) in (1972) Monkey Business and Duck Soup (New York: Simon and Schuster).
Marx, Harpo (1959) appearance with Milton Berle on The Kraft Music Hall (NBC: 14/01/1959).

- (1962) Harpo Speaks! (New York: Limelight Editions).

Mass, Vladimir (1930) Makhno’s Men in von Geldern, James and Stites, Richard (eds) Mass Culture in Soviet Russia (Indiana: Indiana University Press), 139-141.

McKerrow, R B (1910) The Works of Thomas Nashe, 3 vols (London: Sidgwick & Jackson).

McKinven, John A. (1998) The Hanlon Brothers (Illinois: David Meyer Magic Books).

McManus, Donald (2003) No Kidding!: Clown as Protagonist in Twentieth-Century Theater (Newark: Delaware).

Meisner, Sanford (1987) On Acting (New York: Vintage Books).

Melville, Jean-Pierre (1946) 24 Heures de la vie d’un clown (24 Hours in the Life of a Clown) (Melville Productions).

Mendoza, Rubén (2010) La Sociedad del Semáforo (Traffic Light Society) (DíaFragma, Fábrica de Películas).

Metcalf, C. W. and Felible, Roma (1992) Lighten Up – Survival Skills for People Under Pressure (Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley).

Milazzo, Franco (2010) Review of Le Cirque Invisible at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, in Londonist, 10th August 2010,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Monkhouse, Bob (1993) Crying with Laughter (London: Century).

- (1998) Over the Limit (London: Century).
Moshaeva, Ekaterina (Antoschka) (2006) World Parliament of Clowns,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2011) Interview by telephone, 20th August 2011.
Murray, D L (1930) Candles and Crinolines (London: Cape).
Murray, Simon (2002) ‘“Tout Bouge”: Jacques Lecoq, Modern Mime and The Zero Body. A Pedagogy for the Creative Actor’ in Chamberlain, Franc and Yarrow, Ralph (eds.) (2002) Jacques Lecoq and the British Theatre (Oxford: Routledge).

- (2003), Jacques Lecoq (London: Routledge).

Musson, Clettus (2003) World’s Best Clown Gags (New York: D. Robbins and Co).

Nachmanovitch, Stephen (1990) Free Play: Improvisation in Life and Art (New York: Tarcher/ Penguin).

Northbrooke, John (1577) Treatise against Dicing, Dancing, Plays and Interludes in Shakespeare Society (1843) Early Treatises on the Stage (London: Shakespeare Society), p. xvi.

Nose to Nose (2011), date accessed 29th December 2011.

Opie, Iona and Peter (1969) Children’s Games in Street and Playground (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Page, Patrick (1997) 150 Comedy Props (London: Patrick Page).

- (2005) Book of Visual Comedy (London: Patrick Page).

Pallapupas (2011) F.A.Q.,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Paret, Pierre (1959) ‘Entrée de Grock’ in Le Cirque dans l'Univers #34 (Club du Cirque), trans. by Towsen, John (1978) in Mask, Mime & Marionette, vol. I, no. 1, Spring 1978: 25-39 (New York).

Parson, Elsie Clews (1923) ‘The Hopi Wöwöchim Ceremony in 1920’ in American Anthropologist 25: 156-187.

Partido del Trabajo de México (2009) Party Political Broadcast,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Patkin, Max and Hochman, Stan (1994) The Clown Prince of Baseball (Texas: WSR).

Peacock, Louise (2009) Serious Play - Modern Clown Performance (Bristol: Intellect).

Pelling, Kate (2009) Boo!, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2011) Interview in London, 16th August 2011.

Perrodil, Edouard de (1889) Monsieur Clown (Paris: C. Dalou).

Petit, Lenard (2011) Clown Workshop for Actors,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

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Pluvinel Antoine de (circa 1630) L‘instruction du Roy en l’art de monter à cheval (Amsterdam: Jean Schipper).

Poliakoff, Nicolai (1962) Coco the Clown: by himself (London: Dent and Sons Ltd).

Polunin, Slava (2001) Interview with Natalia Kazmina, translated by Julie Delvaux,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

- (2011) Interview with Alexander Kan, Arts Editor of the BBC's Russian Service, 22nd December 2011, BBC News online, date accessed 29th December 2011.

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- (1954) Jean-Gaspard Deburau (Paris: L’Arche).

- (1956) Oleg Popov in France URSS (April 1956 No 127).

- (1962) Entrées Clownesques (Paris: L’Arche).

Rheuban, Joyce (1983) Harry Langdon: The comedian as Metteur-en-Scène (London and Toronto: AUP).

Riehn, Wolfgang (2009) ‘Shaping the Future Intelligently or with Stupidity?’ World Parliament of Clowns panel discussion at the World Culture Forum, Dresden,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

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Robbins, Norman (2002) Slapstick and Sausages, the Evoluiton of British Pantomime (Devon: Trapdoor Publishing).

Robinson-Holden, Joey (2011) Interview with the author, London, 15th August 2011.

Romanushko, Marga (2008) Leonid Yengibarov: clown eyes of a poet (клоун глазами поэта) (Moscow: Москва Гео).

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Sangor, Michel (1892) ‘Les Hanlons-Lees’ in La Plume, no. 82, 15th September 1892.

Sedita, Scott (2006) The Eight Characters of Comedy (Los Angeles: Atides Publishing).

Serafimovich, Alexander (1935) The Iron Flood (New York: International Publishers).
Schechter, Joel (1985), Durov’s Pig (New York: Theater Communications Group).
- (1998), The Congress of Clowns and Other Russian Circus Acts (San Francisco: AK Press).

Scheck, Frank (2010) ‘Clown flop lacks a-peel’, review of Banana Shpeel at The Beacon Theater, New York in the New York Post 22nd May 2010.

Shadyac, Tom (1998) Patch Adams (Blue Wolf).

Shepherd, Simon and Wallis, Mick (2004) Drama/Theatre/Performance (London: Routledge).

Shepherd, Simon and Womack, Peter (1996) English Drama: a Cultural History (London: Blackwell).

Simon, Eli (2009) The Art of Clowning (New York: Palgrave Macmillan)

Slavsky, R. (1980) Vitaly Lazarenko (Moscow: Москва искусство).

Stephen, Alexander M. (1936) Hopi Journal, 2 vol. (New York: Columbia University Press).

Stott, Andrew McConnell (2009) The Pantomime Life of Joseph Grimaldi (Edinburgh: Canongate Books).

Strehly, Georges (1900) L'Acrobatie et les Acrobates (Paris: Delagrave).

Sylvander, Beril (1984) ‘Looking For Your Clown ... And Finding Yourself’, first published in 1984 in Art et Therapie and reproduced at, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Tati, Jacques (1967) Cours du soir (Specta Films).

Tarlton, Richard (1884) ed. Halliwell, James Orchard Tarlton’s Jests (New York: AMS Press 1973).

Taylor, Millie (2007) British Pantomime Performance (Bristol: Intellect Books).

Taylor, Paul (2011) ‘Slava’s Snowshow at The Royal Festival Hall, London’ in The Independent, 23rd December 2011.

Thayer, Stuart (1997) Traveling Showmen (Detroit: Astley & Ricketts).

Ticketmaster (2011) Comments on Slava’s Snowshow,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Toothaker, Christopher (2011) ‘Shhh! Mimes tackle traffic chaos in Venezuela’ for Associated Press, 8th October 2011,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Toulmin, Vanessa (2007) Interview on Making History, 10th April 2007, BBC Radio 4,, date accessed 29th December 2011.

Towsen, John (1976) Clowns (New York: Hawthorne).

- (2011) All Fall Down, the Craft and Art of Physical Comedy,, date accessed 21/11/2011

Valentin, Karl (1976) Der Reparierte Scheinwerfer (Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag).

Vàzquez, Gerard (2006) Uuuuh! (Barcelona: Proa).

Wallett, William F (1870) The Public Life of W F Wallett, the Queen’s Jester (Kondon: Benrose and Sons).

Webber, Kimberley (1996) Circus!: The Jandaschewsky story (Sydney: Powerhouse Publishing).

Welsford, Enid (1935) The Fool: His Social and Literary History (London: Faber and Faber).

Wiles, David (1987) Shakespeare’s Clown (Cambridge: CUP).

- (2003) A Short History of Western Performance Space Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

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